Common Gynecological Issues That Affect Women

Once a female hits puberty, at any point will face some form of issue related to her reproductive system. Consult Dr. Hrishikesh Pai at Budget fertility clinic, Dadar.

Common Gynaecological Issues That Affect Women:

We homo sapiens are classified into different genders based on our reproductive organs.

Women have breasts, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and external genitalia (vagina, cervix) as a part of their reproductive system.

That is a lot of organs. And so is the number of issues associated with them.

A top gynecologist in Mumbai, Dr. Hrishikesh Pai, suggests that every girl or woman should get themselves checked annually for issues pertaining to their reproductive health.

Dr. Hrishikesh Pai is the founder of Budget Fertility Clinic in Mumbai, Bloom IVF center in most cities of India, and Babies and Us in Mumbai.

His experience and expertise in gynecology and IVF spans over 4 decades. His name precedes his reputation as one of the best in Gynaecology and IVF procedures.

You can easily contact him through,,, and many well-known platforms.

What are the most common gynecological problems in women?

Some of the common gynecological problems associated with the women are explained in this article to know the symptoms and consult a good gynecologist if need be.

Read on to know more.

The List of common gynecological problems include:

  • Fibroids
  • PCOD
  • Endometriosis
  • Dysmenorrhea
  • Leucorrhea
  • Amenorrhea
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Menopause
  • Vaginitis
  • Painful intercourse.

What are the signs and symptoms you should look out for?

Other than regular bleeding and vaginal discharge during menstruation, if you notice anything different, you should not ignore it for a very long time as it may result in infertility. Some symptoms are indicators of sexually transmitted diseases and possibly even cervical cancers.

Consult your gynecologist if you notice the following:

路聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Irregular period cycle.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Abnormal vaginal bleeding during menstruation and in between cycles.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Pain in the pelvic area which is persistent even when you do not have periods.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Lumps in the breast with pain

路聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Burning sensation during urination

路聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Painful sexual intercourse and bleeding during intercourse.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Itching and rashes in the vagina

路聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Increase in vaginal discharge with a foul odor and yellowish greenish in color.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Abnormal lumps or mass in the genital area.

We shall learn about these diseases in brief now:


Fibroids are the tumors in the uterus. They are benign. These are common in women aged 35-45 and are asymptomatic most of the time.

However, they do cause the following:

Heavy bleeding during intercourse, dysmenorrhea, irregular period cycle, infertility, and painful intercourse. Recurrent miscarriages and abdominal pain.


A problem evident in young girls due to lifestyles. The syndrome shows signs of amenorrhea, hirsutism, and obesity due to enlarged cystic ovaries.

The ovaries produce excessive testosterone.

聽There are about 12 follicular cysts measure up to 9 mm in diameter.

You may develop insulin resistance and might be prone to diabetes. Other risks associated with PCOS are increasing obesity, especially in the abdominal area, irregular and abnormal menstrual cycle, hirsutism, and acne.

The course of treatment is patient-specific.

But usually, it is a combination of nutrition, exercise, and stress control.

If your PCOS has resulted in infertility, you can try ART.


When the endometrial lining tissue starts growing in abnormal places, it is called endometriosis.

The endometrial tissues can be found in odd places such as around the fallopian tubes, around the ovaries, covering the uterus from outside, and sometimes spreading to the pelvic area as well.

It is a severe condition wherein you might experience extremely painful periods, sex, excessive bleeding, infertility, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and fatigue.

If you are diagnosed with endometriosis, the line of treatment usually includes pain medications, hormone therapy, and steroid.

When medications don鈥檛 work optimally, you may have to undergo surgery to remove the tissue from every possible place that it has spread to.

There is a chance that the condition may resurface. The key is to lead an active lifestyle to avoid further spread and possibly overcome the condition.


Dysmenorrhea is a painful menstrual cycle. It is so painful that you may be unable to do anything because the pain is overwhelming. There are 2 types of dysmenorrhea: the primary and the secondary.

The primary dysmenorrhea usually affects young girls during their periods and is symptomatic of spasmodic pain due to muscle contractions. Simple anti-spasmodic work well for managing pains.

Usually, this symptom disappears after pregnancy or delivery.

Treatment includes a good diet and lifestyle, including regular physical activities.

Secondary dysmenorrhea is seen in women who have already delivered babies. The pain starts approximately 5 days before the periods’ cycle in the lower back and the lower abdomen.

Once the bleeding starts, there is relief from pain.

The reason for this might be fibroids, pelvic infection, pelvic endometrioses, or copper-T.

The treatment is focused on the cause.


Excessive vaginal discharge that is not associated with foul smell or infection is leucorrhoea.

It occurs due to puberty, ovulation, and around the menstrual cycle. It may also occur due to pregnancy and sexual arousal.

It may also result from a prolapsed uterus, retroverted uterus, use of OCP, and pelvic inflammation.

Doctors advise hygiene.


The absence of the menstrual cycle is called amenorrhea.

It is categorized into 2 types: physiological and pathological.

Physiological occurs when you have not yet hit puberty, during pregnancy, during lactation, and after menopause. This is the ordinary course of a woman’s hormone cycle.

Pathological may occur due to some underlying causes.

It can occur due to blockage that doesn’t allow the menstrual blood to come, e.g., Imperforate hymen. This condition is specified as cryptomenorrhea.

When a girl doesn鈥檛 get her periods by the age of 16, it may be due to the absence of the vagina, chromosomal abnormalities like thyroid, adrenal dysfunction, and turner’s syndrome. This condition is specified as Primary amenorrhea.

Only therapy is possible.

If you have started getting periods but have not got them for at least 6 months or more, for some reason.

The cause could be PCOD, tubercular endometriosis, stress, hypothyroidism, diabetes, malnutrition, etc. This condition is specified as secondary amenorrhea.

Pelvic inflammatory disease:

To put it briefly, it is due to sexually transmitted diseases, sharing bathrooms with someone infected. It affects the uterus, fallopian tubes, pelvic peritoneum, and surrounding areas.

The indicative symptoms are pain, abnormal vaginal discharge, painful intercourse, fever, headache, and lethargy.

Treatment includes broad-spectrum antibiotics.


When women cease to have periods ultimately, it is called menopause. It is the end of their reproductive life due to a lack of ovulation. If you do not get periods for consecutively 12 months, it is confirmed that you have attained menopause.

It occurs at around the age of 45 to 55 years of age.

It has many risks associated with it, like, osteoporosis and heart disease.

The indicators are hot flashes, lack of sexual drive, vaginal dryness, recurring UTI, urine incontinence.

It is due to the lack of estrogen. Hormone replacement therapy is usually the preferred course of treatment.


UTI in reproductive age is indicated by greenish-yellow foul-smelling discharge, painful urination, and itching in the vaginal area.

It could be due to Trichomonas vaginalis (microorganisms). Your gynecologist will prescribe metronidazole 200 mg.

UTI due to Candida Albicans indicated by thick frothy discharge, vulvovaginal itching, and painful sexual intercourse.

Treatment includes clotrimazole or miconazole in the form of vaginal cream. A pessary is a suppository to be inserted deep into the vagina for consecutive 2 weeks.

Painful intercourse:

Painful intercourse, also known as Dyspareunia, is the most common sexual dysfunction.

It could be due to narrow vagina, vulval infection, urethral disease, vaginitis, endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, tough hymen, etc.

Treatment depends on the cause.

聽Sexual education of the partners is a way of relieving the symptoms.


You have read through and hopefully understood the criticality of maintaining your reproductive health.

Time and again, meet your gynecologist, and go for cervical cancer screenings, breast examinations, and regular vaginal and rectal check-ups.

A good exercise routine and nutritional diet with regularity in sleeping patterns must be followed.

Early diagnosis helps in treatment on time, so please do not ignore your symptoms.

When your daughter attains puberty, keep a tab on her menstrual cycle and educate her well so that she can report any abnormality.

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