COVID‐19 and varicocele: the possible overlap factors and the common therapeutic approaches – Mahdavinezhad – – American Journal of Reproductive Immunology

Varicocele is recognized as one of the main attributable causes of male infertility which can affect spermatogenesis by various pathophysiological mechanisms. Recent studies have identified oxidative stress and reduction in antioxidant, hyperthermia, hypoxia, hormonal dysfunction, and inflammatory conditions as major factors in the pathophysiology of varicocele, all of which have known direct associations with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and can significantly increase the risk of detrimental COVID-19-related outcomes. Emerging data have shown an association between COVID-19 and inflammation, overproduction of cytokine, and other pathophysiological processes. The present review, summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of varicocele and investigates the potential correlation between the severity of COVID-19 and the varicocele disease. In addition, various possible treatments which can be effective in both diseases were examined. Despite numerous challenges associated with the prevalence of COVID-19 in healthcare systems in infected countries, special attention should be given to maintaining a high level of care for complex patients with a pre-existing disease such as varicocele and providing appropriate practical advice for optimal control of the COVID-19 disease.

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